Garage Building Tips


What is a garage

Garages are used to park cars. This can be a private lot at an airport or a mall, or a storage shed with a garage door at a private home. A car garage can be used strictly for model cars at wealthy homes, or it can be a place for car repair at a car shop. With or without car covers, a garage is always a place for storage, and usually for cars and other vehicles. In the next paragraph, we will talk about how to build a garage for your private house.

Garage Building Tips

 

Garage Building Guide

Here are four steps for building a garage:

  • find a suitable location,
  • lay the foundation,
  • frame the garage,
  • install the roof.

A garage is an unheated space that is used to store a car or other equipment. Garages are usually located fairly close to a primary residence, for the convenience of the homeowner. Using a garage increases the life of a vehicle and can be used to store equipment and supplies securely.

The first step before you even start to build a garage is to obtain permission. If you live in an urban area, there are specific zoning rules and regulations that must be met in order to build a garage. Complete the required forms and make sure that all the legal requirements are met before you begin. The government can tear down an illegally built garage, costing you time and money. In a rural setting, there are fewer restrictions, especially if the land is yours.

The most suitable location for a garage has a straight path to a road or driveway, is close to the primary residence, and does not require the removal of any trees or large shrubs. Take the time to determine the location of any gas, electrical, water, or sewer lines on your property. This information is very important. Although the foundation does not require deep drilling, if the garage is built over any pipes or cables and there is a problem, it may be necessary to dig up the floor.

To lay the foundation, rent a bulldozer and survey equipment. Measure the space required and dig down to create a level surface with the required dimensions to create a foundation when you build a garage. Use the survey equipment to ensure that it is as close to level as possible. Install boards around the perimeter and base, creating a box to hold the concrete. Lay down a layer of gravel and then arrange for the concrete to be poured.

Framing the garage requires the use of wood or prefabricated walls to create the structure. Most people use a team at this stage, as the work moves faster with more people helping. Make a large mark on the floor to indicate where the garage door(s) will be. This will ensure that they are not accidentally closed in.

Modern Concepts and Future Role of Hydropower


Hydropower does not discharge pollutants into the environment; however, it is not free from adverse environmental effects. Considerable efforts have been made to reduce environmental problems associated with hydropower operations.

Hydropower Plant

Efforts to ensure the safety of dams and the use of newly available computer technologies to optimize operations have provided additional opportunities to improve the environment. Yet, many unanswered questions remain about how best to maintain the economic viability of hydropower in the face of increased demands to protect fish and other environmental resources.

Hydropower research and development today is primarily being conducted in the following areas:

  • Fish Passage, Behavior, and Response
  • Turbine-Related Projects
  • Monitoring Tool Development
  • Hydrology
  • Water Quality
  • Dam Safety
  • Operations & Maintenance
  • Water Resources Management

Today, engineers want to make the most of new and existing facilities to increase production and efficiency. Existing hydropower concepts and approaches include:

  • Uprating existing power plants
  • Developing small plants (low-head hydropower)
  • Peaking with hydropower
  • Pumped storage
  • Tying hydropower to other forms of energy

Uprating

The uprating of existing hydroelectric generator and turbine units at power plants is one of the most immediate, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable means of developing additional electric power.

Low-head Hydropower

A low-head dam is one with a water drop of less than 65 feet and a generating capacity less than 15,000 kW. Large, high-head dams can produce more power at lower costs than low-head dams, but construction of large dams may be limited by lack of suitable sites, by environmental considerations, or by economic conditions. In contrast, there are many existing small dams and drops in elevation along canals where small generating plants could be installed. New low-head dams could be built to increase output as well. The key to the usefulness of such units is their ability to generate power near where it is needed, reducing the power inevitably lost during transmission.

Peaking with Hydropower

Demands for power vary greatly during the day and night. These demands vary considerably from season to season, as well. For example, the highest peaks are usually found during summer daylight hours when air conditioners are running. Nuclear and fossil fuel plants are not efficient for producing power for the short periods of increased demand during peak periods. Their operational requirements and their long startup times make them more efficient for meeting baseload needs.

Since hydroelectric generators can be started or stopped almost instantly, hydropower is more responsive than most other energy sources for meeting peak demands. Water can be stored overnight in a reservoir until needed during the day, and then released through turbines to generate power to help supply the peak load demand. This mixing of power sources offers a utility company the flexibility to operate steam plants most efficiently as base plants while meeting peak needs with the help of hydropower. This technique can help ensure reliable supplies and may help eliminate brownouts and blackouts caused by partial or total power failures.

 

Barrette Pile – An Advanced Foundation Technology


Barrette Construction Procedure

Barrette pile is a type of drilled and cast-in-place pile, the distinctive characters of which are the shape and way of drilling. Grab-bucket or Hydrofraise type drilling tools are used for barrette pile construction. The size of these tools determines that of the piles.

The simplest piles are made with one stroke of a standard size grab-bucket (or hydrofraise cutting drums). The sizes are :

  • width : 0.52, 0.62, 0.82, 1.02, 1.22, 1.52 m
  • length : 1.80, 2.20, 2.70, 3.0 m

Starting from these dimensions, bigger or more rigid piles can be formed : bars, crosses, H shaped piles, T shaped piles…

Forms of Barrete Piles

Various forms of Barrette Piles

The methods of calculation and measurement for barrettes are the same as those for drilled and cast-in-place circular piles.

METHOD OF CARRYING OUT THE WORKS

Classically, it includes 3 stages :

1. drilling,
2. putting the reinforcements in place,
3. concreting.

The drilling is generally done under a bentonitic slurry, like a classical diaphragm wall. Often, when the working platform is poor, simplified guide walls are used.

After desanding the drilling slurry, the reinforcement cage is lowered into the trench.

Concreting is done in the usual way with a tremie pipe. Depending on the size of the pile, several pipes may have to be used.

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIFORM STRIP PILES

Due to their shape, the strip piles have several advantages :

  • resistance to horizontal stress and to bending moments better than circular piles of the same section,
  • easy adjustment to structures, so that one single pile is sufficient under each column or bearing unit,
  • better mobilisation of lateral friction than a circular pile of the same section, because of a larger perimeter.

The preferential application field is that of high bearing capacities : from 5 000 kN upwards. The ability to enlarge their area easily makes their possibilities almost limitless.

QUALITY CONTROL

During the accomplishment of the work, the following are checked successively :

  • the quality of the slurry, the verticality and the depth of the borehole,
  • the position of the reinforcements,
  • the volume of concrete at each level.

After the concrete has set, a quality control very often carried out, is to inspect the continuity of the concrete by means of a sonic control. For this, 4 or more pipes are inserted into the reinforcement. Not destructive, this type of control is generally very exact and reliable.

LOADING TESTS

The development of pre-stressed tiebacks has permitted high capacity loading tests at relatively acceptable costs. The test took place on a half-size strip-pile ie. 2.20 X 0.62 m. The load was mobilised by 4 pre-stressed tie-backs 18 T 15 capable of 1 764 t at breaking point.

The maximum load applied was equal to 1.5 time the working load and the stress in the concrete was 7 MPa. The vibrating wire cells used to monitor the distribution of the stresses show that most of the load was taken up by pile toe.