India’s 11 Super Expressways

India, a developing country has world’s third largest road network but when we talk about expressways, we can hardly name a few like Mumbai-Pune Expressway and Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway. So we decided to tell you about some of the other expressways in India.

Here is the list of India’s top 11 Super Expressways

1) Ahmedabad Vadodara Expressway
Ahmedabad Vadodara Expressway is 95 km long and joins Ahmedabad and Baroda in Gujarat. It is also referred as National Expressway 1. This expressway was opened to public in 2004 and was constructed under the Golden Quadrilateral Project by NHAI.

2) Mumbai-Pune Expressway
Mumbai-Pune Expressway (official name is the Yashwantrao Chavan Expressway) is 93 km long and is considered as one of the best expressways in India. It is India’s first six lane high speed expressway and was made by Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC) at a staggering cost of Rs 1,630 crore (US$363.49 million). It was opened to public in April 2002

3) Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway
Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway is 90km long and it connects Jaipur with Kishangarh. It was constructed under the Golden Quadrilateral National Highways Development Project and its cost was USD 154 million. More than 20,000 vehicles pass from this highway everyday.

4) Allahabad Bypass
Allahabad Bypass covers a distance of 86 km and is one of the most remarkable achievements of the Golden Quadrilateral project. It connects India’s four main metropolians New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.

5) Ambala Chandigarh Expressway
Ambala Chandigarh Expressway covers a distance of 35 km and has reduced the traffic congestion to a much greater extent. It was opened in 2009 and was built at a cost of Rs 298 crore ($66.45 million)

6) Chennai Bypass
Chennai Bypass covers a distance of 32 km and connects four national highways (NH45, NH4, NH205 and NH5) around Chennai. The cost of this project was Rs 405 crore (Rs 4.05 billion).

7) Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway
Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway covers a distance of 28 km and has been a life saver for commuters. Before construction of this expressway huge traffic jams were seen on the roads. Though this problem has not been solved 100% but still this expressway has brought some relief to the commuters. Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway starts at Dhaula Kuan in Delhi and ends at Manesar which is on the outskirts of Gurgaon. The cost of this project was $223 million and it was opened for public use in January 2008.

8 ) Noida-Greater Noida Expressway
Noida-Greater Noida Expressway covers a distance of 24.53 km. This six-lane highway connects Noida to Greater Noida. The total cost to build this expressway is about 400 crores (Rs 4 billion).

9) Delhi Noida Direct Flyway
Delhi Noida Direct Flyway or popularly known as the DND flyway is an eight lane road having a total length of 9.2 km and connects Delhi to Noida. It was built by The Noida Toll Bridge Company Ltd.

10) Hyderabad elevated expressway
Two separate elevated expressways were to be constructed in Hyderabad to overcome the congestion problem. The first one is P.V. Narasimha Rao Elevated Expressway which covers a distance of 11.6 km and the other Rajiv Elevated Expressway which will cover the distance of 20 km. P.V. Narasimha Rao Elevated Expressway was completed in 2009 and it connects Hyderabad International Airport to Mehdipatnam. Rajiv Elevated Expressway was proposed as an extension and will cover Secunderabad-Shamirpet stretch via Karkhana, Trimulgherry and Bollarum. But this project is currently under suspension due to high project costs.

11) Hosur Road Elevated Expressway
Hosur Road Elevated Expressway covers a distance of 9.98 km and connects Bangalore to Hosur. This expressway has the distinction of becoming the tallest expressway in Bangalore at the height of 17 meters i.e. 56 ft. This project was started in 2006 by BETL and was inaugurated on 22 January 2010.

We have many more expressways in India which are under construction or are already approved but work has not started yet. But still India needs many more of those expressways, to reduce the traveling time and for better connectivity across other Indian cities and states.

Various useful links to Civil Engineering Journals and Magazines are:-

Phreatic Line and Horizontal Drain In Earth fill Dams

Earth dams are generally built of locally available materials in their natural state with a minimum of processing. Homogeneous earth dams are built whenever only one type of material is economically available.

The material must be sufficiently impervious to provide an adequate water barrier and slopes must be relatively flat to make it safe against piping and sloughing.

The general design procedure is to make a first estimate on the basis of experience with similar dams and then to modify the estimate as required after conducting a stability analysis except where there is a surplus of material.

The United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and other agencies suggested limits for the upstream and the downstream slopes for different types of materials and dams.

Phreatic Line and Horizontal Drain In Earth fill Dams

The upstream slopes of most of the earth dams in actual practice usually vary from 2.0 (horizontal):1 (vertical) to 4:1 and the downstream slopes are generally between 2:1 and 3:1 (USBR 2003). Free board depends on the height and action of waves. USBR (2003) recommends normal free-board about 1.5 to 3 m depending on the fetch. The width of the dam crest is determined by considering the nature of embankment materials, height and importance of structure, possible roadways requirements, and practicability of construction. A majority of dams have the crest widths varying between 5 and 12 m.

About 30% of dams had failed due to the seepage failure, viz piping and sloughing. Recent comprehensive reviews by Foster et al. (2000a,b) and Fell et al. (2003) show that internal erosion and piping are the main causes of failure and accidents affecting embankment dams; and the proportion of their failures by piping increased from 43% before 1950 to 54% after 1950. The sloughing of the downstream face of a homogeneous earth dam occurs under the steady-state seepage condition due to the softening and weakening of the soil mass when the top flow line or phreatic line intersects it. Regardless of flatness of the downstream slope and impermeability of soil, the phreatic line intersects the downstream face to a height of roughly one-third the depth of water . It is usual practice to use a modified homogeneous section in which an internal drainage system in the form of a horizontal blanket drain or a rock toe or a combination of the two is provided. The drainage system keeps the phreatic line well within the body of the dam. Horizontal filtered drainage blankets are widely used for dams of moderate height.USBR constructed the 50 m high Vega dam, which is one of the highest with a homogenous section and a horizontal downstream drain.

The minimum length of the horizontal blanket drain required to keep the phreatic line within the body of the dam by a specified depth and also equations for maximum downstream slope cover and minimum and maximum effective lengths of the downstream filtered drainage system.

The position of the phreatic line influences the stability of the earth dam because of potential piping due to excessive exit gradient and sloughing due to the softening and weakening of the soil mass as if it touches the downstream slope or intersects it. When the dam embankment is homogeneous or when the downstream zone is of questionable permeability, a horizontal drainage blanket is provided to keep the phreatic line well within the dam body, to allow adequate embankment and foundation drainage, and to eliminate piping from the foundation and the embankment.

As the dams are made of fine-grained soil, saturation may occur due to the capillary rise above the phreatic surface so it is necessary to account for capillary rise while calculating the minimum length of the downstream filtered drainage. Though the suction head in the soil matrix above the phreatic surface within the dam body due to capillary rise generally improves the stability of the downstream slope, once the capillary fringe intersects the downstream slope the pressure changes from negative (suction) to atmospheric and the downstream face may become a seepage face leading to its failure. Hence the phreatic line should not intersect the downstream slope and it should be a distance greater than capillary rise below the sloping face so that the chances of the sloughing or piping may be nullified.