Wastewater Management


Objectives of Wastewater Treatment:

  • To kill the pathogens

  • To improve the quality of wastewater

  • To avoid unhygienic conditions

  • To protect the aquatic life from the toxicity wastes

  • To make the wastewater usable for agricultural, aquaculture etc.

There are three constituents and interrelated aspects of waste water management.

    1. Collection of wastewater

      • Collection of domestic wastewater is best achieved by a full sewerage water drain age system. Unfortunately this method is most expensive and there is relatively few communities in hot climate which afford it. A modern hygienic method of night soil collection is the only realistic alternative.

    2. Treatment of wastewater

      • Treatment is required principally to destroy pathogenic agents in sewage or night soil and to encore that it is suitable for whatever re-use process is secreted for it.

    3. Re-use of wastewater (Recycling of wastewater)

      • The responsible re-use of night soil and sewage effluent is aqua culture and crop irrigation can make a significant contribution to a community food supply and hence it’s general social development. The best example is china where over 90% of waste after treatment is applied to land.

Performance criteria for Wastewater Treatment Management System:

The ideal system would satisfy all of the following criteria.

Health Criteria:

Pathogenic organisms should not be spread either by direct contact with right soil or sewage or indirectly via soil, water or food. The treatment chosen should achieve a high degree of pathogen destruction.

Re-use/Recycle Criteria:

The treatment process should yield a safe product for re-use, preferably in aquaculture and agriculture.

Ecological criteria:

In those cases land the should be considered exception when the waste cannot be re-use, the discharge of effluent into a surface water should not exceed the self-purification capacity of the recipient water.

Nuisance Criteria:

The degree of odor release must be below the nuisance threshold. No part of the system should become aesthetically offensive.

Cultural Criteria.

The methods chosen for waste collection, treatment and re-use should be compatible with local habits and social (religious) practice.

Operational Criteria:

The skills required for the routine operation and maintenance of the system components must be available locally or are such that they can be acquired with only minimum training.

Cost criteria:

Capital and running costs must not exceed the community’s ability to pay. The financial return from re-use schemes is an important factor is an important factor in this regard.
However, no one system completely satisfies all these demands. The problem becomes one of minimizing disadvantages.

Waste Water treatment Processes:

Municipal wastewater is primarily organic in content and a significant number of industries including chemical pharmaceutical and food have high organic waste load. This means that the main treatment processes are geared towards organic removal. In a typical treatment plant, the wastewater is directed through a series of physical, chemical and biological processes each with specific waste load reduction task. The tasks are typically.

  1. Pre-treatment  ==> Physical and / or chemical

  2. Primary treatment ==> Physical

  3. Secondary treatment ==> Biological

  4. Advanced treatment ==> Physical and / or chemical and / or biological.

Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plant Processes:

Conventional treatment or conventional mechanical wastewater treatment is the term used to describe the standard method of treatment designed to remove organic matter and solid from solution. It comprises four stages of treatment.

  • Preliminary treatment ( influent flow measurement, screening (Bar racks), Shredders, comminutors (maceratours), pumping, grit removal)

  • Primary treatment (sedimentation)

  • Secondary treatment (biofitration or activated sludge)

Sludge treatment (anaerobic digestion of the sludge produced in primary and biological treatment)

Basic-flow-diagram-for-conventional-wastewater-treatment-plantReference: http://www.aboutcivil.org/urban-waste-water-management-systems.html

IMPACT OF SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT ON RESERVOIR LIFE


As shown in Figure, the Initial Reservoir Storage is the sum of Future Storage Requirements, Active Storage, and Dead Storage. The line designated as Today is the point at which sediment mitigation is implemented.

Impact Of Sediment Management On Reservoir Life

The Reservoir Capacity line indicates the steady decline of the reservoir’s storage capacity as sediment accumulates over time. This storage loss begins the moment water is stored. The rate of capacity decline (slope of the line) depends on local conditions. In reality, the decline of reservoir capacity is an irregular process with the greatest sediment accumulation taking place during annual spring runoff and during rainfall events. Both of these change over the years too. The rate of capacity decline is estimated as a straight line from the time the reservoir is built until today, and projected into the future.

The Required Storage Capacity line indicates the minimum storage necessary for the water system, of which the reservoir is a part, to function. Notice the intersection of the Reservoir Capacity line and the Required Storage Capacity line. This is the time when the reservoir capacity can no longer meet the requirements for which the reservoir was built. This occurs long before the reservoir is completely filled with sediment.

As time passes beyond this point, reservoir uses can become more and more restricted. The restrictions can pass unnoticed due to the normal variations in the water supply and reservoir usage. With sufficient data, this point can be estimated to plan for the future and help determine the urgency for sediment mitigation actions. This typically varies from when 15 to 40 percent of the reservoir storage is lost.

Case 1 – shows the reservoir capacity over time if no action is taken and sediment is allowed to accumulate with no mitigation.

Case 2 – shows the reservoir capacity if one, or more, sediment mitigation strategies are implemented, resulting in a slower rate of sediment accumulation in the reservoir. Notice the resulting extension of the reservoir’s useful life.

Case 3 – shows the reservoir capacity after removing a certain volume of sediment from the reservoirand simultaneously enacting one, or more, sediment mitigation strategies that results in slowing the rate of sediment accumulation. Notice the greater extension of the reservoir’s useful life than Case 2.

Case 4 – shows the reservoir capacity after enacting one, or more, sediment mitigation strategies that result in stopping sediment accumulation in the reservoir completely. Depending on local conditions, this may or may not be possible. When it is possible, the Reservoir Capacity and Required Storage Capacity lines never intersect and the reservoir’s useful life is potentially extended indefinitely. One scenario to achieve this is a combination of bypassing sediment during spring runoff and hydrosuction removal of previously accumulated sediment. Hydrosuction or another single method alone could also accomplish this.

Precipitation


Water falling in solid or liquid form e.g. rain, snow, and hail..

Uses of Precipitation Data

      • Runoff estimation analysis
      • Groundwater recharge analysis
      • Water balance studies of catchments
      • Flood analysis for design of hydraulic structures
      • Real-time flood forecasting
      • low flow studies

Mechanism Producing Precipitation

Three mechanisms are needed for formation of precipitation.
1. Lifting and Cooling – Lifting of air mass to higher altitudes causes cooling of air.
2. Condensation – conversion of water vapor into liquid droplets.
3. Droplet Formation – Growth of droplets is required if the liquid water present in a cloud is to reach ground against the lifting mechanism of air.

Types of Precipitation

Depending upon the way in which the air is lifted and cooled so as to cause precipitation, we have three types of precipitation, as given below:

        • Cyclonic Precipitation
        • Convective Precipitation
        • Orographic Precipitation

Cyclonic Precipitation:

Cyclonic precipitation is caused by lifting of an air mass due to the pressure difference. Cyclonic precipitation may be either frontal or non-frontal cyclonic precipitation.

1. Frontal precipitation:

It results from the lifting of warm and moist air on one side of a frontal surface over colder, denser air on the other side. A front may be warm front or cold front depending upon whether there is active or passive accent of warm air mass over cold air mass.2.

2. Non-frontal precipitation:

If low pressure occurs in an area (called cyclone), air will flow horizontally from the surrounding area (high pressure), causing the air in the low-pressure area to lift. When the lifted warm-air cools down at higher attitude, non-frontal cyclonic precipitation will occur.

prcp1

In the case of a cold front, a colder, denser air mass lifts the warm, moist air ahead of it. As the air rises, it cools and its moisture condenses to produce clouds and precipitation. Due to the steep slope of a cold front, forceful rising motion is often produced, leading to the development of showers and occasionally severe thunderstorms.

prcp1

In the case of a warm front, the warm, less dense air rises up and over the colder air ahead of the front. Again, the air cools as it rises and its moisture condenses to produce clouds and precipitation. Warm fronts have a gentler slope and generally move more slowly than cold fronts, so the rising motion along warm fronts is much more gradual. Precipitation that develops in advance of a surface warm front is typically steady and more widespread than precipitation associated with a cold front. Warm front precipitation is generally light to moderate.

Convective Precipitation

Convective precipitation is caused by natural rising of warmer, lighter air in colder, denser surroundings. Generally, this kind of precipitation occurs in tropics, where on a hot day, the ground surface gets heated unequally, causing the warmer air to lift up as the colder air comes to take its place. The vertical air currents develop tremendous velocities. Convective precipitation occurs in the form of showers of high intensity and short duration.

Orographic Precipitation

Orographic precipitation is caused by air masses which strike some natural topographic barriers like mountains, and cannot move forward and hence rise up, causing condensation and precipitation. All the precipitation we have in Himalayan region is because of this nature. It is rich in moisture because of their long travel over oceans.